Announcement

Collapse
No announcement yet.

CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION ZOONOSIS UPDATE!

Collapse
X
 
  • Filter
  • Time
  • Show
Clear All
new posts

    CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD TSE PRION ZOONOSIS UPDATE!

    Large-scale PMCA screening of retropharyngeal lymph nodes and in white-tailed deer and comparisons with ELISA and IHC: the Texas CWD study

    Rebeca Benaventea, Paulina Sotoa, Mitch Lockwoodb, and Rodrigo Moralesa

    aDepartment of Neurology, McGovern Medical School, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Texas, USA; bTexas Park and Wildlife Department, Texas, USA

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that affects various species of cervids, and both free-ranging and captive animals.

    Until now, CWD has been detected in 3 continents: North America, Europe, and Asia. CWD prevalence in some states may reach 30% of total animals. In Texas, the first case of CWD was reported in a free-range mule deer in Hudspeth and now it has been detected in additional 14 counties.

    Currently, the gold standard techniques used for CWD screening and detection are ELISA and immunohistochemistry (IHC) of obex and retropharyngeal lymph nodes (RPLN). Unfortunately, these methods are known for having a low diagnostic sensitivity. Hence, many CWD-infected animals at pre-symptomatic stages may be misdiagnosed. Two promising in vitro prion amplification techniques, including the real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) and the protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) have been used to diagnose CWD and other prion diseases in several tissues and bodily fluids. Considering the low cost and speed of RT-QuIC, two recent studies have communicated the potential of this technique to diagnose CWD prions in RPLN samples. Unfortunately, the data presented in these articles suggest that identification of CWD positive samples is comparable to the currently used ELISA and IHC protocols. Similar studies using the PMCA technique have not been reported.

    Aims: Compare the CWD diagnostic potential of PMCA with ELISA and IHC in RPLN samples from captive and free-range white-tailed deer.

    Material and Methods: In this study we analyzed 1,003 RPLN from both free-ranging and captive white-tailed deer collected in Texas. Samples were interrogated with the PMCA technique for their content of CWD prions. PMCA data was compared with the results obtained through currently approved techniques.

    Results: Our results show a 15-fold increase in CWD detection in free-range deer compared with ELISA. Our results unveil the presence of prion infected animals in Texas counties with no previous history of CWD. In the case of captive deer, we detected a 16% more CWD positive animals when compared with IHC. Interestingly, some of these positive samples displayed differences in their electroforetic mobilities, suggesting the presence of different prion strains within the State of Texas.

    Conclusions: PMCA sensitivity is significantly higher than the current gold standards techniques IHC and ELISA and would be a good tool for rapid CWD screening.

    Funded by: USDA
    Grant number: AP20VSSPRS00C143

    Stable and highly zoonotic cervid prion strain is possible

    Manuel Camacho, Xu Qi, Liuting Qing, Sydney Smith, Jieji Hu, Wanyun Tao, Ignazio Cali, and Qingzhong Kong

    Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, USA

    Aims: Whether CWD prions can infect humans remains unclear despite the very substantial scale and long history of human exposure of CWD in some areas. Multiple in vitro conversion experiments and in vivo animal studies suggest that the CWD-to-human transmission barrier is not unbreakable. A major public health concern on CWD zoonosis is the emergence of highly zoonotic CWD strains. We aim to address the question of whether highly zoonotic CWD strains are possible.

    Material and Methods: We inoculated a few sCJD brain samples into cervidized transgenic mice, which were intended as negative controls for bioassays of brain tissues from sCJD cases who had hunted or consumed vension from CWD-endemic states. Some of these mice became infected and their brain tissues were further examined by serial passages in humanized or cervidized mice.

    Results: Passage of sCJDMM1 in transgenic mice expressing elk PrP (Tg12) resulted in a ‘cervidized’ CJD strain that we termed CJDElkPrP. We observed 100% transmission of CJDElkPrPin transgenic mice expressing human PrP (Tg40h). We passaged CJDElkPrPtwo more times in the Tg12 mice. We found that such second and third passage CJDElkPrPprions also led to 100% infection in the Tg40h mice. In contrast, we and others found zero or poor transmission of natural elk CWD isolates in humanized mice, despite that natural elk CWD isolates and CJDElkPrPshare the same elk PrP sequence.
    Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that highly zoonotic cervid prion strains are not only possible but also can be stably maintained in cervids and that CWD zoonosis is prion strain-dependent.

    Funded by: NIH
    Grant number: R01NS052319, R01NS088604, R01NS109532
    Acknowledgement: We want to thank the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center and Drs. Allen Jenny and Katherine O’Rourke for providing the sCJD samples and the CWD samples, respectively.

    Transmission of prion infectivity from CWD-infected macaque tissues to rodent models demonstrates the zoonotic potential of chronic wasting disease.

    Samia Hannaouia, Ginny Chenga, Wiebke Wemheuerb, Walter J. Schulz-Schaefferb, Sabine Gilcha, and Hermann M. Schätzla
    aDepartment of Comparative Biology and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine & Hotchkiss Brain Institute; University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada; bInstitute of Neuropathology, Medical Faculty, Saarland University, Homburg/Saar, Germany

    Aims: Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disease of cervids. Its rapid geographic expansion, shedding of infectivity and persistence in the environment for many years are of concern for humans. Here, we provide the first evidence by transmission experiments to different transgenic mouse models and bank voles that Cynomolgus macaques inoculated via different routes with CWD-positive cervid tissues harbor infectious prions that elicit clinical disease in rodents.

    Material and Methods: We used tissue materials from macaques inoculated with CWD to inoculate transgenic mice overexpressing cervid PrPCfollowed by transmission into bank voles. We used RT-QuIC, immunoblot and PET blot analysis to assess brains, spinal cords, and tissues of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) for the presence of prions.

    Results: Our results show that of the macaque materials that induced clinical disease in transgenic mice,73% were from the CNS (46% spinal cord and 27% brain), and 27% were from the spleen, although attack rates were low around 20%. Clinical mice did not display PK-resistant PrPSc(PrPres) in immunoblot, but showed low-levels of prion seeding activity. Transmission into bank voles from clinical transgenic mice led to a 100% attack rate with typical PrPressignature in immunoblot, which was different from that of voles inoculated directly with CWD or scrapie prions. High-level prion seeding activity in brain and spinal cord and PrPresdeposition in the brain were present. Remarkably, we also found prion seeding activity in GIT tissues of inoculated voles. Second passage in bank voles led to a 100% attack rate in voles inoculated with brain, spinal cord and small intestine material from first round animals, with PrPresin immunoblot, prion seeding activity, and PrPresdeposition in the brain. Shortened survival times indicate adaptation in the new host. This also shows that prions detected in GIT tissues are infectious and transmissible. Transmission of brain material from sick voles back to cervidized mice revealed transmission in these mice with a 100% attack rate, and interestingly, with different biochemical signature and distribution in the brain.

    Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that macaques, considered the best model for the zoonotic potential of prions, were infected upon CWD challenge, including oral one. The disease manifested as atypical in macaques and transgenic mice, but with infectivity present at all times, as unveiled in the bank vole model with an unusual tissue tropism.

    Funded by: The National Institutes of Health, USA, and the Alberta Prion Research Institute/Alberta Innovates Canada.
    Grant number: 1R01NS121016-01; 201,600,023
    Acknowledgement: We thank Umberto Agrimi, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy, and Michael Beekes, Robert-Koch Institute Berlin, Germany, for providing the bank vole model. We thank the University of Calgary animal facility staff and Dr. Stephanie Anderson for animal care.

    Transmission of Cervid Prions to Humanized Mice Demonstrates the Zoonotic Potential of CWD

    Samia Hannaouia, Irina Zemlyankinaa, Sheng Chun Changa, Maria Immaculata Arifina, Vincent Béringueb, Debbie McKenziec, Hermann M. Schatzla, and Sabine Gilcha

    aDepartment of Comparative Biology and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine; Hotchkiss Brain Institute; University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada; bUniversité Paris-Saclay, INRAE, UVSQ, VIM, Jouy-en-Josas, France; cDepartment of Biological Sciences, Center for Prions and Protein Folding Diseases, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada

    Aims: Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disease of cervids, spreads efficiently among wild and farmed animals. Potential transmission to humans of CWD is a growing concern due to its increasing prevalence. Here, we aimed to determine the zoonotic potential of CWD using a mouse model for human prion diseases.

    Material and Methods: Transgenic mice overexpressing human PrPChomozygous for methionine at codon 129 (tg650) were inoculated intracerebrally with brain homogenates of white-tailed deer infected with Wisc-1/CWD1 or 116AG CWD strains. Mice were monitored for clinical signs and were euthanized at terminal disease. Brains were tested by RT-QuIC, western blot upon PK digestion, and immunohistochemistry; fecal homogenates were analyzed by RT-QuIC. Brain/spinal cord and fecal homogenates of CWD-inoculated tg650 mice were inoculated into tg650 mice or bank voles. Brain homogenates of bank voles inoculated with fecal homogenates of CWD-infected tg650 mice were used for second passage in bank voles.

    Results: Here, we provide the strongest evidence supporting the zoonotic potential of CWD prions, and their possible phenotype in humans. Inoculation of mice expressing human PrPCwith deer CWD isolates (strains Wisc-1 and 116AG) resulted in atypical clinical manifestations in > 75% of the mice, with myoclonus as leading clinical sign. Most of tg650 brain homogenates were positive for seeding activity in RT-QuIC. Clinical disease and presentation was transmissible to tg650 mice and bank voles. Intriguingly, protease-resistant PrP in the brain of tg650 mice resembled that found in a familial human prion disease and was transmissible upon passage. Abnormal PrP aggregates upon infection with Wisc-1 were detectable in thalamus, hypothalamus, and midbrain/pons regions.
    Unprecedented in human prion disease, feces of CWD-inoculated tg650 mice harbored prion seeding activity and infectious prions, as shown by inoculation of bank voles and tg650 with fecal homogenates.

    Conclusions: This is the first evidence that CWD can infect humans and cause disease with a distinctive clinical presentation, signature, and tropism, which might be transmissible between humans while current diagnostic assays might fail to detect it. These findings have major implications for public health and CWD-management.

    Funded by: We are grateful for financial support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the National Institutes of Health, Genome Canada, and the Alberta Prion Research Institute. SG is supported by the Canada Research Chairs program.

    Acknowledgement: We thank Dr. Trent Bollinger, WCVM, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada, for providing brain tissue from the WTD-116AG isolate, Dr. Stéphane Haïk, ICM, Paris, France, for providing brain tissue from vCJD and sCJD cases, and Dr. Umberto Agrimi, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Italy, for the bank vole model. We thank animal facility staff for animal care, Dr. Stephanie Anderson for veterinary oversight, and Yo-Ching Cheng for preparing recombinant PrP substrates. Thank you to Dr. Stephanie Booth and Jennifer Myskiw, Public Health Agency of Canada, Canada.

    The chronic wasting disease agent from white-tailed deer is infectious to humanized mice after passage through raccoons

    Eric Cassmanna, Xu Qib, Qingzhong Kongb, and Justin Greenleea

    aNational Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA, USA
    bDepartments of Pathology, Neurology, National Center for Regenerative Medicine, and National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA

    Aims: Evaluate the zoonotic potential of the raccoon passaged chronic wasting disease (CWD) agent in humanized transgenic mice in comparison with the North American CWD agent from the original white-tailed deer host.

    Material and Methods: Pooled brain material (GG96) from a CWD positive herd was used to oronasally inoculate two white-tailed deer with wild-type prion protein genotype and intracranially inoculate a raccoon. Brain homogenates (10% w/v) from the raccoon and the two white-tailed deer were used to intracranially inoculate separate groups of transgenic mice that express human prion protein with methionine (M) at codon 129 (Tg40h). Brains and spleens were collected from mice at experimental endpoints of clinical disease or approximately 700 days post-inoculation. Tissues were divided and homogenized or fixed in 10% buffered neutral formalin. Immunohistochemistry, enzyme immunoassay, and western blot were used to detect misfolded prion protein (PrPSc) in tissue.

    Results: Humanized transgenic mice inoculated with the raccoon passaged CWD agent from white-tailed deer exhibited a 100% (12/12) attack rate with an average incubation period of 605 days. PrPScwas detected in brain tissue by enzyme immunoassay with an average optical density of 3.6/4.0 for positive brains. PrPScalso was detected in brain tissue by western blot and immunohistochemistry. No PrPScwas detected in the spleens of mice inoculated with the raccoon passaged CWD agent. Humanized mice inoculated with the CWD agent from white-tailed deer did not have detectable PrPScusing conventional immunoassay techniques.

    Conclusions: The host range of the CWD agent from white-tailed deer was expanded in our experimental model after one passage through raccoons.

    Funded by: This research was funded in its entirety by congressionally appropriated funds to the United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. The funders of the work did not influence study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
    Acknowledgement: We thank Quazetta Brown, Lexi Frese, Rylie Frese, Kevin Hassall, Leisa Mandell, and Trudy Tatum for providing excellent technical support to this project.

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    PRION 2022 ABSTRACTS, AND A BIG THANK YOU TO

    On behalf of the Prion2020/2022 Congress Organizing Committee and the NeuroPrion Association, we heartily invite you to join us for the International Conference Prion2020/2022 from 13.-16. September 2022 in Göttingen.

    Prion 2022 Conference abstracts: pushing the boundaries

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ) Antonia Ricci Ana Allende Declan Bolton Marianne Chemaly Robert Davies Pablo Salvador Fernández Escámez ... See all authors

    First published: 17 January 2018 Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    also, see;

    8. Even though human TSE‐exposure risk through consumption of game from European cervids can be assumed to be minor, if at all existing, no final conclusion can be drawn due to the overall lack of scientific data.

    ***> In particular the US data do not clearly exclude the possibility of human (sporadic or familial) TSE development due to consumption of venison.

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    Prion Infectivity in Fat of Deer with Chronic Wasting Disease▿

    Brent Race#, Kimberly Meade-White#, Richard Race and Bruce Chesebro* + Author Affiliations

    In mice, prion infectivity was recently detected in fat. Since ruminant fat is consumed by humans and fed to animals, we determined infectivity titers in fat from two CWD-infected deer. Deer fat devoid of muscle contained low levels of CWD infectivity and might be a risk factor for prion infection of other species.

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    Prions in Skeletal Muscles of Deer with Chronic Wasting Disease

    Here bioassays in transgenic mice expressing cervid prion protein revealed the presence of infectious prions in skeletal muscles of CWD-infected deer, demonstrating that humans consuming or handling meat from CWD-infected deer are at risk to prion exposure.

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    Research Paper

    Cellular prion protein distribution in the vomeronasal organ, parotid, and scent glands of white-tailed deer and mule deer

    Anthony Ness, Aradhana Jacob, Kelsey Saboraki, Alicia Otero, Danielle Gushue, Diana Martinez Moreno, Melanie de Peña, Xinli Tang, Judd Aiken, Susan Lingle & Debbie McKenzieORCID Icon show less

    Pages 40-57 | Received 03 Feb 2022, Accepted 13 May 2022, Published online: 29 May 2022

    Download citation

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    ABSTRACT

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a contagious and fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting species of the cervidae family. CWD has an expanding geographic range and complex, poorly understood transmission mechanics. CWD is disproportionately prevalent in wild male mule deer and male white-tailed deer. Sex and species influences on CWD prevalence have been hypothesized to be related to animal behaviours that involve deer facial and body exocrine glands. Understanding CWD transmission potential requires a foundational knowledge of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) in glands associated with cervid behaviours. In this study, we characterized the presence and distribution of PrPC in six integumentary and two non-integumentary tissues of hunter-harvested mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (O. virginianus). We report that white-tailed deer expressed significantly more PrPC than their mule deer in the parotid, metatarsal, and interdigital glands. Females expressed more PrPC than males in the forehead and preorbital glands. The distribution of PrPC within the integumentary exocrine glands of the face and legs were localized to glandular cells, hair follicles, epidermis, and immune cell infiltrates. All tissues examined expressed sufficient quantities of PrPC to serve as possible sites of prion initial infection, propagation, and shedding.

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    TUESDAY, AUGUST 23, 2022

    Transmission of cervid prions to humanized mice demonstrates the zoonotic potential of CWD

    These findings have strong implications for public health and CWD management.

    snip...see full text;

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    terry

    #2
    ARS RESEARCH Generation of human chronic wasting disease in transgenic mice

    Publication Acceptance Date: 9/8/2021

    Research Project: Pathobiology, Genetics, and Detection of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Location: Virus and Prion Research

    Title: Generation of human chronic wasting disease in transgenic mice

    Author item WANG, ZERUI - Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) item QIN, KEFENG - University Of Chicago item CAMACHO, MANUEL - Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) item SHEN, PINGPING - Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) item YUAN, JUE - Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) item Greenlee, Justin item CUI, LI - Jilin University item KONG, QINGZHONG - Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) item MASTRIANNI, JAMES - University Of Chicago item ZOU, WEN-QUAN - Case Western Reserve University (CWRU)

    Submitted to: Acta Neuropathologica Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal Publication Acceptance Date: 9/8/2021 Publication Date: N/A Citation: N/A

    Interpretive Summary: Prion diseases are invariably fatal neurologic diseases for which there is no known prevention or cure. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is the prion disease of deer and elk and is present in farmed and free ranging herds throughout North America. To date there is no clear evidence that the CWD agent could be transmitted to humans. This manuscript describes the use of an in vitro technique, cell-free serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA), to generate a CWD prion that is infectious to transgenic mice expressing the human prion protein. This study provides the first evidence that CWD prions may be able to cause misfolding in the human prion protein. This information will impact medical experts and those involved in making policy for farmed cervids and wildlife.

    Technical Abstract: Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a cervid spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease caused by the infectious prion or PrPSc, a misfolded conformer of cellular prion protein (PrPC). It has rapidly spread in North America and also has been found in Asia and Europe. In contrast to the zoonotic mad cow disease that is the first animal prion disease found transmissible to humans, the transmissibility of CWD to humans remains uncertain although most previous studies have suggested that humans may not be susceptible to CWD. Here we report the generation of an infectious human PrPSc by seeding CWD PrPSc in normal human brain PrPC through the in vitro cell-free serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA). Western blotting confirms that the sPMCA-induced proteinase K-resistant PrPSc is a human form, evidenced by a PrP-specific antibody that recognizes human but not cervid PrP. Remarkably, two lines of humanized transgenic (Tg) mice expressing human PrP-129Val/Val (VV) or -129Met/Met (MM) polymorphism develop prion disease at 233 ± 6 (mean ± SE) days post-inoculation (dpi) and 552 ± 27 dpi, respectively, upon intracerebral inoculation with the sPMCA-generated PrPSc. The brain of diseased Tg mice reveals the electrophoretic profile of PrPSc similar to sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) MM1 or VV2 subtype but different neuropathological patterns. We believe that our study provides the first evidence that CWD PrPSc is able to convert human PrPC into PrPSc in vitro and the CWD-derived human PrPSc mimics atypical sCJD subtypes in humanized Tg mice.

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    ''The brain of diseased Tg mice reveals the electrophoretic profile of PrPSc similar to sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) MM1 or VV2 subtype but different neuropathological patterns.''

    ''We believe that our study provides the first evidence that CWD PrPSc is able to convert human PrPC into PrPSc in vitro and the CWD-derived human PrPSc mimics atypical sCJD subtypes in humanized Tg mice.''

    Published: 26 September 2021

    Generation of human chronic wasting disease in transgenic mice

    Zerui Wang, Kefeng Qin, Manuel V. Camacho, Ignazio Cali, Jue Yuan, Pingping Shen, Justin Greenlee, Qingzhong Kong, James A. Mastrianni & Wen-Quan Zou

    Acta Neuropathologica Communications volume 9, Article number: 158 (2021)

    Abstract

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a cervid prion disease caused by the accumulation of an infectious misfolded conformer (PrPSc) of cellular prion protein (PrPC). It has been spreading rapidly in North America and also found in Asia and Europe. Although bovine spongiform encephalopathy (i.e. mad cow disease) is the only animal prion disease known to be zoonotic, the transmissibility of CWD to humans remains uncertain. Here we report the generation of the first CWD-derived infectious human PrPSc by elk CWD PrPSc-seeded conversion of PrPC in normal human brain homogenates using in vitro protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA). Western blotting with human PrP selective antibody confirmed that the PMCA-generated protease-resistant PrPSc was derived from the human PrPC substrate. Two lines of humanized transgenic mice expressing human PrP with either Val or Met at the polymorphic codon 129 developed clinical prion disease following intracerebral inoculation with the PMCA-generated CWD-derived human PrPSc. Diseased mice exhibited distinct PrPSc patterns and neuropathological changes in the brain. Our study, using PMCA and animal bioassays, provides the first evidence that CWD PrPSc can cross the species barrier to convert human PrPC into infectious PrPSc that can produce bona fide prion disease when inoculated into humanized transgenic mice.

    Snip...

    It is worth noting that the annual number of sporadic CJD (sCJD) cases in the USA has increased, with the total number of suspected and confirmed sCJD cases rising from 284 in 2003 to 511 in 2017 (Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...). The greatly enhanced CJD surveillance and an aging population in the USA certainly contributed to the observed increase in annual sCJD case numbers in recent years, but the possibility cannot be excluded that some of the increased sCJD prevalence is linked to CWD exposure.

    In the present study, using serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) assay we generate PrPSc by seeding CWD prions in normal human brain homogenates. Importantly, we reveal that two lines of humanized Tg mice expressing human PrP-129VV and 129MM develop prion diseases upon intracerebral inoculation of the abnormal PrP generated by sPMCA. We believe that our study provides the first opportunity to dissect the clinical, pathological and biochemical features of the CWD-derived human prion disease in two lines of humanized Tg mice expressing two major human PrP genotypes, respectively.

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    i thought i might share some news about cwd zoonosis that i got, that i cannot share or post to the public yet, i promised for various reasons, one that it will cause a shit storm for sure, but it was something i really already knew from previous studies, but, i was told that ;

    ==================

    ''As you can imagine, 2 and 5 (especially 5) may raise alarms. The evidence we have for 4 are not as strong or tight as I would like to have. At this point, please do not post any of the points publicly yet, but you can refer to points 1-3 in private discussions and all 5 points when discussing with relevant public officials to highlight the long-term risks of CWD zoonosis.''

    ===================

    so, i figure your as about as official as it gets, and i think this science is extremely important for you to know and to converse about with your officials. it's about to burn a whole in my pocket. this is about as close as it will ever get for cwd zoonosis to be proven in my time, this and what Canada Czub et al found with the Macaques, plus an old study from cjd surveillance unit back that showed cjd and a 9% increase in risk from folks that eat venison, i will post all this below for your files Sir. i remember back in the BSE nvCJD days, from when the first BSE case in bovine was confirmed around 1984 maybe 83, i forget the good vets named that screwed it up first, Carol something, but from 83ish to 95 96 when nvCJD was linked to humans from BSE in cattle, so that took 10 to 15 years. hell, at that rate, especially with Texas and cwd zoonsis, hell, i'll be dead before it's official, if ever, so here ya go Sir. there was a grant study on cwd zoonosis that had been going on for some time, i followed it over the years, then the grant date for said study had expired, so, i thought i would write the good Professor about said study i.e. Professor Kong, CWRU et al. i will post the grant study abstract first, and then after that, what reply i got back, about said study that i was told not to post/publish...

    CWD ZOONOSIS GRANT FIRST;

    ===============

    Cervid to human prion transmission

    Kong, Qingzhong

    Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States

    Abstract

    Prion disease is transmissible and invariably fatal. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is the prion disease affecting deer, elk and moose, and it is a widespread and expanding epidemic affecting 22 US States and 2 Canadian provinces so far. CWD poses the most serious zoonotic prion transmission risks in North America because of huge venison consumption (>6 million deer/elk hunted and consumed annually in the USA alone), significant prion infectivity in muscles and other tissues/fluids from CWD-affected cervids, and usually high levels of individual exposure to CWD resulting from consumption of the affected animal among often just family and friends. However, we still do not know whether CWD prions can infect humans in the brain or peripheral tissues or whether clinical/asymptomatic CWD zoonosis has already occurred, and we have no essays to reliably detect CWD infection in humans. We hypothesize that: (1) The classic CWD prion strain can infect humans at low levels in the brain and peripheral lymphoid tissues; (2) The cervid-to-human transmission barrier is dependent on the cervid prion strain and influenced by the host (human) prion protein (PrP) primary sequence; (3) Reliable essays can be established to detect CWD infection in humans; and (4) CWD transmission to humans has already occurred. We will test these hypotheses in 4 Aims using transgenic (Tg) mouse models and complementary in vitro approaches.

    Aim 1 will prove that the classical CWD strain may infect humans in brain or peripheral lymphoid tissues at low levels by conducting systemic bioassays in a set of humanized Tg mouse lines expressing common human PrP variants using a number of CWD isolates at varying doses and routes. Experimental human CWD samples will also be generated for Aim 3.

    Aim 2 will test the hypothesis that the cervid-to-human prion transmission barrier is dependent on prion strain and influenced by the host (human) PrP sequence by examining and comparing the transmission efficiency and phenotypes of several atypical/unusual CWD isolates/strains as well as a few prion strains from other species that have adapted to cervid PrP sequence, utilizing the same panel of humanized Tg mouse lines as in Aim 1.

    Aim 3 will establish reliable essays for detection and surveillance of CWD infection in humans by examining in details the clinical, pathological, biochemical and in vitro seeding properties of existing and future experimental human CWD samples generated from Aims 1-2 and compare them with those of common sporadic human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) prions.

    Aim 4 will attempt to detect clinical CWD-affected human cases by examining a significant number of brain samples from prion-affected human subjects in the USA and Canada who have consumed venison from CWD-endemic areas utilizing the criteria and essays established in Aim 3. The findings from this proposal will greatly advance our understandings on the potential and characteristics of cervid prion transmission in humans, establish reliable essays for CWD zoonosis and potentially discover the first case(s) of CWD infection in humans.

    Public Health Relevance There are significant and increasing human exposure to cervid prions because chronic wasting disease (CWD, a widespread and highly infectious prion disease among deer and elk in North America) continues spreading and consumption of venison remains popular, but our understanding on cervid-to-human prion transmission is still very limited, raising public health concerns. This proposal aims to define the zoonotic risks of cervid prions and set up and apply essays to detect CWD zoonosis using mouse models and in vitro methods. The findings will greatly expand our knowledge on the potentials and characteristics of cervid prion transmission in humans, establish reliable essays for such infections and may discover the first case(s) of CWD infection in humans.

    Funding Agency Agency National Institute of Health (NIH) Institute National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) Type Research Project (R01) Project # 1R01NS088604-01A1 Application # 9037884 Study Section Cellular and Molecular Biology of Neurodegeneration Study Section (CMND) Program Officer Wong, May Project Start 2015-09-30 Project End 2019-07-31 Budget Start 2015-09-30 Budget End 2016-07-31 Support Year 1 Fiscal Year 2015 Total Cost $337,507 Indirect Cost $118,756

    snip...

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...


    Professor Kongs reply to me just this month about above grant study that has NOT been published in peer reveiw yet...

    =================================

    Here is a brief summary of our findings:

    snip...can't post, made a promise...tss

    On Sat, Apr 3, 2021 at 12:19 PM Terry Singeltary <flounder9@verizon.net> wrote:

    snip...

    end...tss

    ==============

    CWD ZOONOSIS THE FULL MONTY TO DATE

    International Conference on Emerging Diseases, Outbreaks & Case Studies & 16th Annual Meeting on Influenza March 28-29, 2018 | Orlando, USA

    Qingzhong Kong

    Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, USA

    Zoonotic potential of chronic wasting disease prions from cervids

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is the prion disease in cervids (mule deer, white-tailed deer, American elk, moose, and reindeer). It has become an epidemic in North America, and it has been detected in the Europe (Norway) since 2016. The widespread CWD and popular hunting and consumption of cervid meat and other products raise serious public health concerns, but questions remain on human susceptibility to CWD prions, especially on the potential difference in zoonotic potential among the various CWD prion strains. We have been working to address this critical question for well over a decade. We used CWD samples from various cervid species to inoculate transgenic mice expressing human or elk prion protein (PrP). We found infectious prions in the spleen or brain in a small fraction of CWD-inoculated transgenic mice expressing human PrP, indicating that humans are not completely resistant to CWD prions; this finding has significant ramifications on the public health impact of CWD prions. The influence of cervid PrP polymorphisms, the prion strain dependence of CWD-to-human transmission barrier, and the characterization of experimental human CWD prions will be discussed.

    Speaker Biography Qingzhong Kong has completed his PhD from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst and Post-doctoral studies at Yale University. He is currently an Associate Professor of Pathology, Neurology and Regenerative Medicine. He has published over 50 original research papers in reputable journals (including Science Translational Medicine, JCI, PNAS and Cell Reports) and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member on seven scientific journals. He has multiple research interests, including public health risks of animal prions (CWD of cervids and atypical BSE of cattle), animal modeling of human prion diseases, mechanisms of prion replication and pathogenesis, etiology of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD) in humans, normal cellular PrP in the biology and pathology of multiple brain and peripheral diseases, proteins responsible for the α-cleavage of cellular PrP, as well as gene therapy and DNA vaccination.

    qxk2@case.edu

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    SUNDAY, JULY 25, 2021

    North American and Norwegian Chronic Wasting Disease prions exhibit different potential for interspecies transmission and zoonotic risk

    ''Our data suggest that reindeer and red deer from Norway could be the most transmissible CWD prions to other mammals, whereas North American CWD prions were more prone to generate human prions in vitro.''

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    MONDAY, JULY 19, 2021

    ***> U Calgary researchers at work on a vaccine against a fatal infectious disease affecting deer and potentially people


    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...


    Prion Conference 2018 Abstracts

    BSE aka MAD COW DISEASE, was first discovered in 1984, and it took until 1995 to finally admit that BSE was causing nvCJD, the rest there is history, but that science is still evolving i.e. science now shows that indeed atypical L-type BSE, atypical Nor-98 Scrapie, and typical Scrapie are all zoonosis, zoonotic for humans, there from.

    HOW long are we going to wait for Chronic Wasting Disease, CWD TSE Prion of Cervid, and zoonosis, zoonotic tranmission to humans there from?

    Studies have shown since 1994 that humans are susceptible to CWD TSE Prion, so, what's the hold up with making CWD a zoonotic zoonosis disease, the iatrogenic transmissions there from is not waiting for someone to make a decision.

    Prion Conference 2018 Abstracts

    P190 Human prion disease mortality rates by occurrence of chronic wasting disease in freeranging cervids, United States

    Abrams JY (1), Maddox RA (1), Schonberger LB (1), Person MK (1), Appleby BS (2), Belay ED (1)

    (1) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, GA, USA (2) Case Western Reserve University, National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center (NPDPSC), Cleveland, OH, USA.

    Background

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disease of deer and elk that has been identified in freeranging cervids in 23 US states. While there is currently no epidemiological evidence for zoonotic transmission through the consumption of contaminated venison, studies suggest the CWD agent can cross the species barrier in experimental models designed to closely mimic humans. We compared rates of human prion disease in states with and without CWD to examine the possibility of undetermined zoonotic transmission.

    Methods

    Death records from the National Center for Health Statistics, case records from the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center, and additional state case reports were combined to create a database of human prion disease cases from 2003-2015. Identification of CWD in each state was determined through reports of positive CWD tests by state wildlife agencies. Age- and race-adjusted mortality rates for human prion disease, excluding cases with known etiology, were determined for four categories of states based on CWD occurrence: highly endemic (>16 counties with CWD identified in free-ranging cervids); moderately endemic (3-10 counties with CWD); low endemic (1-2 counties with CWD); and no CWD states. States were counted as having no CWD until the year CWD was first identified. Analyses stratified by age, sex, and time period were also conducted to focus on subgroups for which zoonotic transmission would be more likely to be detected: cases <55 years old, male sex, and the latter half of the study (2010-2015).

    Results

    Highly endemic states had a higher rate of prion disease mortality compared to non-CWD states (rate ratio [RR]: 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01 - 1.23), as did low endemic states (RR: 1.15, 95% CI = 1.04 - 1.27). Moderately endemic states did not have an elevated mortality rate (RR: 1.05, 95% CI = 0.93 - 1.17). In age-stratified analyses, prion disease mortality rates among the <55 year old population were elevated for moderately endemic states (RR: 1.57, 95% CI = 1.10 – 2.24) while mortality rates were elevated among those ≥55 for highly endemic states (RR: 1.13, 95% CI = 1.02 - 1.26) and low endemic states (RR: 1.16, 95% CI = 1.04 - 1.29). In other stratified analyses, prion disease mortality rates for males were only elevated for low endemic states (RR: 1.27, 95% CI = 1.10 - 1.48), and none of the categories of CWD-endemic states had elevated mortality rates for the latter time period (2010-2015).

    Conclusions

    While higher prion disease mortality rates in certain categories of states with CWD in free-ranging cervids were noted, additional stratified analyses did not reveal markedly elevated rates for potentially sensitive subgroups that would be suggestive of zoonotic transmission. Unknown confounding factors or other biases may explain state-by-state differences in prion disease mortality.

    =====

    P172 Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients with Prion Disease

    Wang H(1), Cohen M(1), Appleby BS(1,2)

    (1) University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio (2) National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center, Cleveland, Ohio.

    Prion disease is a fatal progressive neurodegenerative disease due to deposition of an abnormal protease-resistant isoform of prion protein. Typical symptoms include rapidly progressive dementia, myoclonus, visual disturbance and hallucinations. Interestingly, in patients with prion disease, the abnormal protein canould also be found in the peripheral nervous system. Case reports of prion deposition in peripheral nerves have been reported. Peripheral nerve involvement is thought to be uncommon; however, little is known about the exact prevalence and features of peripheral neuropathy in patients with prion disease.

    We reviewed autopsy-proven prion cases from the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center that were diagnosed between September 2016 to March 2017. We collected information regarding prion protein diagnosis, demographics, comorbidities, clinical symptoms, physical exam, neuropathology, molecular subtype, genetics lab, brain MRI, image and EMG reports. Our study included 104 patients. Thirteen (12.5%) patients had either subjective symptoms or objective signs of peripheral neuropathy. Among these 13 patients, 3 had other known potential etiologies of peripheral neuropathy such as vitamin B12 deficiency or prior chemotherapy. Among 10 patients that had no other clear etiology, 3 (30%) had familial CJD. The most common sCJD subtype was MV1-2 (30%), followed by MM1-2 (20%). The Majority of cases wasere male (60%). Half of them had exposure to wild game. The most common subjective symptoms were tingling and/or numbness of distal extremities. The most common objective finding was diminished vibratory sensation in the feet. Half of them had an EMG with the findings ranging from fasciculations to axonal polyneuropathy or demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    Our study provides an overview of the pattern of peripheral neuropathy in patients with prion disease. Among patients with peripheral neuropathy symptoms or signs, majority has polyneuropathy. It is important to document the baseline frequency of peripheral neuropathy in prion diseases as these symptoms may become important when conducting surveillance for potential novel zoonotic prion diseases.

    =====

    P177 PrP plaques in methionine homozygous Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients as a potential marker of iatrogenic transmission

    Abrams JY (1), Schonberger LB (1), Cali I (2), Cohen Y (2), Blevins JE (2), Maddox RA (1), Belay ED (1), Appleby BS (2), Cohen ML (2)

    (1) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, GA, USA (2) Case Western Reserve University, National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center (NPDPSC), Cleveland, OH, USA.

    Background

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is widely believed to originate from de novo spontaneous conversion of normal prion protein (PrP) to its pathogenic form, but concern remains that some reported sporadic CJD cases may actually be caused by disease transmission via iatrogenic processes. For cases with methionine homozygosity (CJD-MM) at codon 129 of the PRNP gene, recent research has pointed to plaque-like PrP deposition as a potential marker of iatrogenic transmission for a subset of cases. This phenotype is theorized to originate from specific iatrogenic source CJD types that comprise roughly a quarter of known CJD cases.

    Methods

    We reviewed scientific literature for studies which described PrP plaques among CJD patients with known epidemiological links to iatrogenic transmission (receipt of cadaveric human grown hormone or dura mater), as well as in cases of reported sporadic CJD. The presence and description of plaques, along with CJD classification type and other contextual factors, were used to summarize the current evidence regarding plaques as a potential marker of iatrogenic transmission. In addition, 523 cases of reported sporadic CJD cases in the US from January 2013 through September 2017 were assessed for presence of PrP plaques.

    Results

    We identified four studies describing 52 total cases of CJD-MM among either dura mater recipients or growth hormone recipients, of which 30 were identified as having PrP plaques. While sporadic cases were not generally described as having plaques, we did identify case reports which described plaques among sporadic MM2 cases as well as case reports of plaques exclusively in white matter among sporadic MM1 cases. Among the 523 reported sporadic CJD cases, 0 of 366 MM1 cases had plaques, 2 of 48 MM2 cases had kuru plaques, and 4 of 109 MM1+2 cases had either kuru plaques or both kuru and florid plaques. Medical chart review of the six reported sporadic CJD cases with plaques did not reveal clinical histories suggestive of potential iatrogenic transmission.

    Conclusions

    PrP plaques occur much more frequently for iatrogenic CJD-MM cases compared to sporadic CJDMM cases. Plaques may indicate iatrogenic transmission for CJD-MM cases without a type 2 Western blot fragment. The study results suggest the absence of significant misclassifications of iatrogenic CJD as sporadic. To our knowledge, this study is the first to describe grey matter kuru plaques in apparently sporadic CJD-MM patients with a type 2 Western blot fragment.

    =====

    P180 Clinico-pathological analysis of human prion diseases in a brain bank series

    Ximelis T (1), Aldecoa I (1,2), Molina-Porcel L (1,3), Grau-Rivera O (4), Ferrer I (5), Nos C (6), Gelpi E (1,7), Sánchez-Valle R (1,4)

    (1) Neurological Tissue Bank of the Biobanc-Hospital ClÃnic-IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain (2) Pathological Service of Hospital ClÃnic de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain (3) EAIA Trastorns Cognitius, Centre Emili Mira, Parc de Salut Mar, Barcelona, Spain (4) Department of Neurology of Hospital ClÃnic de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain (5) Institute of Neuropathology, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (6) General subdirectorate of Surveillance and Response to Emergencies in Public Health, Department of Public Health in Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain (7) Institute of Neurology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

    Background and objective:

    The Neurological Tissue Bank (NTB) of the Hospital Clínic-Institut d‘Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Barcelona, Spain is the reference center in Catalonia for the neuropathological study of prion diseases in the region since 2001. The aim of this study is to analyse the characteristics of the confirmed prion diseases registered at the NTB during the last 15 years.

    Methods:

    We reviewed retrospectively all neuropathologically confirmed cases registered during the period January 2001 to December 2016.

    Results:

    176 cases (54,3% female, mean age: 67,5 years and age range: 25-86 years) of neuropathological confirmed prion diseases have been studied at the NTB. 152 cases corresponded to sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), 10 to genetic CJD, 10 to Fatal Familial Insomnia, 2 to GerstmannSträussler-Scheinker disease, and 2 cases to variably protease-sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr). Within sCJD subtypes the MM1 subtype was the most frequent, followed by the VV2 histotype.

    Clinical and neuropathological diagnoses agreed in 166 cases (94%). The clinical diagnosis was not accurate in 10 patients with definite prion disease: 1 had a clinical diagnosis of Fronto-temporal dementia (FTD), 1 Niemann-Pick‘s disease, 1 Lewy Body‘s Disease, 2 Alzheimer‘s disease, 1 Cortico-basal syndrome and 2 undetermined dementia. Among patients with VPSPr, 1 had a clinical diagnosis of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and the other one with FTD.

    Concomitant pathologies are frequent in older age groups, mainly AD neuropathological changes were observed in these subjects.

    Discussion:

    A wide spectrum of human prion diseases have been identified in the NTB being the relative frequencies and main characteristics like other published series. There is a high rate of agreement between clinical and neuropathological diagnoses with prion diseases. These findings show the importance that public health has given to prion diseases during the past 15 years. Continuous surveillance of human prion disease allows identification of new emerging phenotypes. Brain tissue samples from these donors are available to the scientific community. For more information please visit:

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...


    =====

    P192 Prion amplification techniques for the rapid evaluation of surface decontamination procedures

    Bruyere-Ostells L (1), Mayran C (1), Belondrade M (1), Boublik Y (2), Haïk S (3), Fournier-Wirth C (1), Nicot S (1), Bougard D (1)

    (1) Pathogenesis and control of chronic infections, Etablissement Français du Sang, Inserm, Université de Montpellier, Montpellier, France. (2) Centre de Recherche en Biologie cellulaire de Montpellier, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, Montpellier, France. (3) Inserm U 1127, CNRS UMR 7225, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06 UMR S 1127, Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière, ICM, Paris, France.

    Aims:

    Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE) or prion diseases are a group of incurable and always fatal neurodegenerative disorders including Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases (CJD) in humans. These pathologies include sporadic (sCJD), genetic and acquired (variant CJD) forms. By the past, sCJD and vCJD were transmitted by different prion contaminated biological materials to patients resulting in more than 400 iatrogenic cases (iCJD). The atypical nature and the biochemical properties of the infectious agent, formed by abnormal prion protein or PrPTSE, make it particularly resistant to conventional decontamination procedures. In addition, PrPTSE is widely distributed throughout the organism before clinical onset in vCJD and can also be detected in some peripheral tissues in sporadic CJD. Risk of iatrogenic transmission of CJD by contaminated medical device remains thus a concern for healthcare facilities. Bioassay is the gold standard method to evaluate the efficacy of prion decontamination procedures but is time-consuming and expensive. Here, we propose to compare in vitro prion amplification techniques: Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification (PMCA) and Real-Time Quaking Induced Conversion (RT-QuIC) for the detection of residual prions on surface after decontamination.

    Methods:

    Stainless steel wires, by mimicking the surface of surgical instruments, were proposed as a carrier model of prions for inactivation studies. To determine the sensitivity of the two amplification techniques on wires (Surf-PMCA and Surf-QuIC), steel wires were therefore contaminated with serial dilutions of brain homogenates (BH) from a 263k infected hamster and from a patient with sCJD (MM1 subtype). We then compared the different standard decontamination procedures including partially and fully efficient treatments by detecting the residual seeding activity on 263K and sCJD contaminated wires. We completed our study by the evaluation of marketed reagents endorsed for prion decontamination.

    Results:

    The two amplification techniques can detect minute quantities of PrPTSE adsorbed onto a single wire. 8/8 wires contaminated with a 10-6 dilution of 263k BH and 1/6 with the 10-8 dilution are positive with Surf-PMCA. Similar performances were obtained with Surf-QuIC on 263K: 10/16 wires contaminated with 10-6 dilution and 1/8 wires contaminated with 10-8 dilution are positive. Regarding the human sCJD-MM1 prion, Surf-QuIC allows us to detect 16/16 wires contaminated with 10-6 dilutions and 14/16 with 10-7 . Results obtained after decontamination treatments are very similar between 263K and sCJD prions. Efficiency of marketed treatments to remove prions is lower than expected.

    Conclusions:

    Surf-PMCA and Surf-QuIC are very sensitive methods for the detection of prions on wires and could be applied to prion decontamination studies for rapid evaluation of new treatments. Sodium hypochlorite is the only product to efficiently remove seeding activity of both 263K and sCJD prions.

    =====

    WA2 Oral transmission of CWD into Cynomolgus macaques: signs of atypical disease, prion conversion and infectivity in macaques and bio-assayed transgenic mice

    Schatzl HM (1, 2), Hannaoui S (1, 2), Cheng Y-C (1, 2), Gilch S (1, 2), Beekes M (3), SchulzSchaeffer W (4), Stahl-Hennig C (5) and Czub S (2, 6)

    (1) University of Calgary, Calgary Prion Research Unit, Calgary, Canada (2) University of Calgary, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Calgary, Canada, (3) Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany, (4) University of Homburg/Saar, Homburg, Germany, (5) German Primate Center, Goettingen, Germany, (6) Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), Lethbridge, Canada.

    To date, BSE is the only example of interspecies transmission of an animal prion disease into humans. The potential zoonotic transmission of CWD is an alarming issue and was addressed by many groups using a variety of in vitro and in vivo experimental systems. Evidence from these studies indicated a substantial, if not absolute, species barrier, aligning with the absence of epidemiological evidence suggesting transmission into humans. Studies in non-human primates were not conclusive so far, with oral transmission into new-world monkeys and no transmission into old-world monkeys. Our consortium has challenged 18 Cynomolgus macaques with characterized CWD material, focusing on oral transmission with muscle tissue. Some macaques have orally received a total of 5 kg of muscle material over a period of 2 years. After 5-7 years of incubation time some animals showed clinical symptoms indicative of prion disease, and prion neuropathology and PrPSc deposition were found in spinal cord and brain of euthanized animals. PrPSc in immunoblot was weakly detected in some spinal cord materials and various tissues tested positive in RT-QuIC, including lymph node and spleen homogenates. To prove prion infectivity in the macaque tissues, we have intracerebrally inoculated 2 lines of transgenic mice, expressing either elk or human PrP. At least 3 TgElk mice, receiving tissues from 2 different macaques, showed clinical signs of a progressive prion disease and brains were positive in immunoblot and RT-QuIC. Tissues (brain, spinal cord and spleen) from these and preclinical mice are currently tested using various read-outs and by second passage in mice. Transgenic mice expressing human PrP were so far negative for clear clinical prion disease (some mice >300 days p.i.). In parallel, the same macaque materials are inoculated into bank voles. Taken together, there is strong evidence of transmissibility of CWD orally into macaques and from macaque tissues into transgenic mouse models, although with an incomplete attack rate. The clinical and pathological presentation in macaques was mostly atypical, with a strong emphasis on spinal cord pathology. Our ongoing studies will show whether the transmission of CWD into macaques and passage in transgenic mice represents a form of non-adaptive prion amplification, and whether macaque-adapted prions have the potential to infect mice expressing human PrP. The notion that CWD can be transmitted orally into both new-world and old-world non-human primates asks for a careful reevaluation of the zoonotic risk of CWD.

    See also poster P103

    ***> The notion that CWD can be transmitted orally into both new-world and old-world non-human primates asks for a careful reevaluation of the zoonotic risk of CWD.

    =====

    WA16 Monitoring Potential CWD Transmission to Humans

    Belay ED

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, GA, USA.

    The spread of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in animals has raised concerns about increasing human exposure to the CWD agent via hunting and venison consumption, potentially facilitating CWD transmission to humans. Several studies have explored this possibility, including limited epidemiologic studies, in vitro experiments, and laboratory studies using various types of animal models. Most human exposures to the CWD agent in the United States would be expected to occur in association with deer and elk hunting in CWD-endemic areas. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) collaborated with state health departments in Colorado, Wisconsin, and Wyoming to identify persons at risk of CWD exposure and to monitor their vital status over time. Databases were established of persons who hunted in Colorado and Wyoming and those who reported consumption of venison from deer that later tested positive in Wisconsin. Information from the databases is periodically cross-checked with mortality data to determine the vital status and causes of death for deceased persons. Long-term follow-up of these hunters is needed to assess their risk of development of a prion disease linked to CWD exposure.

    =====

    P166 Characterization of CJD strain profiles in venison consumers and non-consumers from Alberta and Saskatchewan

    Stephanie Booth (1,2), Lise Lamoureux (1), Debra Sorensen (1), Jennifer L. Myskiw (1,2), Megan Klassen (1,2), Michael Coulthart (3), Valerie Sim (4)

    (1) Zoonotic Diseases and Special Pathogens, National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg (2) Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg (3) Canadian CJD Surveillance System, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa (4) Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine Centre for Prions and Protein Folding Diseases, University of Alberta, Edmonton.

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is spreading rapidly through wild cervid populations in the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. While this has implications for tourism and hunting, there is also concern over possible zoonotic transmission to humans who eat venison from infected deer. Whilst there is no evidence of any human cases of CWD to date, the Canadian CJD Surveillance System (CJDSS) in Canada is staying vigilant. When variant CJD occurred following exposure to BSE, the unique biochemical fingerprint of the pathologic PrP enabled a causal link to be confirmed. However, we cannot be sure what phenotype human CWD prions would present with, or indeed, whether this would be distinct from that see in sporadic CJD. Therefore we are undertaking a systematic analysis of the molecular diversity of CJD cases of individuals who resided in Alberta and Saskatchewan at their time of death comparing venison consumers and non-consumers, using a variety of clinical, imaging, pathological and biochemical markers. Our initial objective is to develop novel biochemical methodologies that will extend the baseline glycoform and genetic polymorphism typing that is already completed by the CJDSS. Firstly, we are reviewing MRI, EEG and pathology information from over 40 cases of CJD to select clinically affected areas for further investigation. Biochemical analysis will include assessment of the levels of protease sensitive and resistant prion protein, glycoform typing using 2D gel electrophoresis, testing seeding capabilities and kinetics of aggregation by quaking-induced conversion, and determining prion oligomer size distributions with asymmetric flow field fractionation with in-line light scattering. Progress and preliminary data will be presented. Ultimately, we intend to further define the relationship between PrP structure and disease phenotype and establish a baseline for the identification of future atypical CJD cases that may arise as a result of exposure to CWD.

    =====

    Source Prion Conference 2018 Abstracts

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    Volume 24, Number 8—August 2018 Research Susceptibility of Human Prion Protein to Conversion by Chronic Wasting Disease Prions

    Marcelo A. BarriaComments to Author , Adriana Libori, Gordon Mitchell, and Mark W. Head Author affiliations: National CJD Research and Surveillance Unit, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK (M.A. Barria, A. Libori, M.W. Head); National and OIE Reference Laboratory for Scrapie and CWD, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (G. Mitchell)

    Abstract Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a contagious and fatal neurodegenerative disease and a serious animal health issue for deer and elk in North America. The identification of the first cases of CWD among free-ranging reindeer and moose in Europe brings back into focus the unresolved issue of whether CWD can be zoonotic like bovine spongiform encephalopathy. We used a cell-free seeded protein misfolding assay to determine whether CWD prions from elk, white-tailed deer, and reindeer in North America can convert the human prion protein to the disease-associated form. We found that prions can convert, but the efficiency of conversion is affected by polymorphic variation in the cervid and human prion protein genes. In view of the similarity of reindeer, elk, and white-tailed deer in North America to reindeer, red deer, and roe deer, respectively, in Europe, a more comprehensive and thorough assessment of the zoonotic potential of CWD might be warranted.

    snip...

    Discussion Characterization of the transmission properties of CWD and evaluation of their zoonotic potential are important for public health purposes. Given that CWD affects several members of the family Cervidae, it seems reasonable to consider whether the zoonotic potential of CWD prions could be affected by factors such as CWD strain, cervid species, geographic location, and Prnp–PRNP polymorphic variation. We have previously used an in vitro conversion assay (PMCA) to investigate the susceptibility of the human PrP to conversion to its disease-associated form by several animal prion diseases, including CWD (15,16,22). The sensitivity of our molecular model for the detection of zoonotic conversion depends on the combination of 1) the action of proteinase K to degrade the abundant human PrPC that constitutes the substrate while only N terminally truncating any human PrPres produced and 2) the presence of the 3F4 epitope on human but not cervid PrP. In effect, this degree of sensitivity means that any human PrPres formed during the PMCA reaction can be detected down to the limit of Western blot sensitivity. In contrast, if other antibodies that detect both cervid and human PrP are used, such as 6H4, then newly formed human PrPres must be detected as a measurable increase in PrPres over the amount remaining in the reaction product from the cervid seed. Although best known for the efficient amplification of prions in research and diagnostic contexts, the variation of the PMCA method employed in our study is optimized for the definitive detection of zoonotic reaction products of inherently inefficient conversion reactions conducted across species barriers. By using this system, we previously made and reported the novel observation that elk CWD prions could convert human PrPC from human brain and could also convert recombinant human PrPC expressed in transgenic mice and eukaryotic cell cultures (15).

    A previous publication suggested that mule deer PrPSc was unable to convert humanized transgenic substrate in PMCA assays (23) and required a further step of in vitro conditioning in deer substrate PMCA before it was able to cross the deer–human molecular barrier (24). However, prions from other species, such as elk (15) and reindeer affected by CWD, appear to be compatible with the human protein in a single round of amplification (as shown in our study). These observations suggest that different deer species affected by CWD could present differing degrees of the olecular compatibility with the normal form of human PrP.

    The contribution of the polymorphism at codon 129 of the human PrP gene has been extensively studied and is recognized as a risk factor for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (4). In cervids, the equivalent codon corresponds to the position 132 encoding methionine or leucine. This polymorphism in the elk gene has been shown to play an important role in CWD susceptibility (25,26). We have investigated the effect of this cervid Prnp polymorphism on the conversion of the humanized transgenic substrate according to the variation in the equivalent PRNP codon 129 polymorphism. Interestingly, only the homologs methionine homozygous seed–substrate reactions could readily convert the human PrP, whereas the heterozygous elk PrPSc was unable to do so, even though comparable amounts of PrPres were used to seed the reaction. In addition, we observed only low levels of human PrPres formation in the reactions seeded with the homozygous methionine (132 MM) and the heterozygous (132 ML) seeds incubated with the other 2 human polymorphic substrates (129 MV and 129 VV). The presence of the amino acid leucine at position 132 of the elk Prnp gene has been attributed to a lower degree of prion conversion compared with methionine on the basis of experiments in mice made transgenic for these polymorphic variants (26). Considering the differences observed for the amplification of the homozygous human methionine substrate by the 2 polymorphic elk seeds (MM and ML), reappraisal of the susceptibility of human PrPC by the full range of cervid polymorphic variants affected by CWD would be warranted.

    In light of the recent identification of the first cases of CWD in Europe in a free-ranging reindeer (R. tarandus) in Norway (2), we also decided to evaluate the in vitro conversion potential of CWD in 2 experimentally infected reindeer (18). Formation of human PrPres was readily detectable after a single round of PMCA, and in all 3 humanized polymorphic substrates (MM, MV, and VV). This finding suggests that CWD prions from reindeer could be more compatible with human PrPC generally and might therefore present a greater risk for zoonosis than, for example, CWD prions from white-tailed deer. A more comprehensive comparison of CWD in the affected species, coupled with the polymorphic variations in the human and deer PRNP–Prnp genes, in vivo and in vitro, will be required before firm conclusions can be drawn. Analysis of the Prnp sequence of the CWD reindeer in Norway was reported to be identical to the specimens used in our study (2). This finding raises the possibility of a direct comparison of zoonotic potential between CWD acquired in the wild and that produced in a controlled laboratory setting. (Table).

    The prion hypothesis proposes that direct molecular interaction between PrPSc and PrPC is necessary for conversion and prion replication. Accordingly, polymorphic variants of the PrP of host and agent might play a role in determining compatibility and potential zoonotic risk. In this study, we have examined the capacity of the human PrPC to support in vitro conversion by elk, white-tailed deer, and reindeer CWD PrPSc. Our data confirm that elk CWD prions can convert the human PrPC, at least in vitro, and show that the homologous PRNP polymorphisms at codon 129 and 132 in humans and cervids affect conversion efficiency. Other species affected by CWD, particularly caribou or reindeer, also seem able to convert the human PrP. It will be important to determine whether other polymorphic variants found in other CWD-affected Cervidae or perhaps other factors (17) exert similar effects on the ability to convert human PrP and thus affect their zoonotic potential.

    Dr. Barria is a research scientist working at the National CJD Research and Surveillance Unit, University of Edinburgh. His research has focused on understanding the molecular basis of a group of fatal neurologic disorders called prion diseases.

    Acknowledgments We thank Aru Balachandran for originally providing cervid brain tissues, Abigail Diack and Jean Manson for providing mouse brain tissue, and James Ironside for his critical reading of the manuscript at an early stage.


    This report is independent research commissioned and funded by the United Kingdom’s Department of Health Policy Research Programme and the Government of Scotland. The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Department of Health or the Government of Scotland.

    Author contributions: The study was conceived and designed by M.A.B. and M.W.H. The experiments were conducted by M.A.B. and A.L. Chronic wasting disease brain specimens were provided by G.M. The manuscript was written by M.A.B. and M.W.H. All authors contributed to the editing and revision of the manuscript.

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    Prion 2017 Conference Abstracts

    First evidence of intracranial and peroral transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) into Cynomolgus macaques: a work in progress

    Stefanie Czub1, Walter Schulz-Schaeffer2, Christiane Stahl-Hennig3, Michael Beekes4, Hermann Schaetzl5 and Dirk Motzkus6 1

    University of Calgary Faculty of Veterinary Medicine/Canadian Food Inspection Agency; 2Universitatsklinikum des Saarlandes und Medizinische Fakultat der Universitat des Saarlandes; 3 Deutsches Primaten Zentrum/Goettingen; 4 Robert-Koch-Institut Berlin; 5 University of Calgary Faculty of Veterinary Medicine; 6 presently: Boehringer Ingelheim Veterinary Research Center; previously: Deutsches Primaten Zentrum/Goettingen

    This is a progress report of a project which started in 2009.

    21 cynomolgus macaques were challenged with characterized CWD material from white-tailed deer (WTD) or elk by intracerebral (ic), oral, and skin exposure routes. Additional blood transfusion experiments are supposed to assess the CWD contamination risk of human blood product. Challenge materials originated from symptomatic cervids for ic, skin scarification and partially per oral routes (WTD brain). Challenge material for feeding of muscle derived from preclinical WTD and from preclinical macaques for blood transfusion experiments. We have confirmed that the CWD challenge material contained at least two different CWD agents (brain material) as well as CWD prions in muscle-associated nerves.

    Here we present first data on a group of animals either challenged ic with steel wires or per orally and sacrificed with incubation times ranging from 4.5 to 6.9 years at postmortem. Three animals displayed signs of mild clinical disease, including anxiety, apathy, ataxia and/or tremor. In four animals wasting was observed, two of those had confirmed diabetes. All animals have variable signs of prion neuropathology in spinal cords and brains and by supersensitive IHC, reaction was detected in spinal cord segments of all animals. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA), real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuiC) and PET-blot assays to further substantiate these findings are on the way, as well as bioassays in bank voles and transgenic mice.

    At present, a total of 10 animals are sacrificed and read-outs are ongoing. Preclinical incubation of the remaining macaques covers a range from 6.4 to 7.10 years. Based on the species barrier and an incubation time of > 5 years for BSE in macaques and about 10 years for scrapie in macaques, we expected an onset of clinical disease beyond 6 years post inoculation.

    PRION 2017 DECIPHERING NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS ABSTRACTS REFERENCE

    8. Even though human TSE‐exposure risk through consumption of game from European cervids can be assumed to be minor, if at all existing, no final conclusion can be drawn due to the overall lack of scientific data. In particular the US data do not clearly exclude the possibility of human (sporadic or familial) TSE development due to consumption of venison. The Working Group thus recognizes a potential risk to consumers if a TSE would be present in European cervids. It might be prudent considering appropriate measures to reduce such a risk, e.g. excluding tissues such as CNS and lymphoid tissues from the human food chain, which would greatly reduce any potential risk for consumers. However, it is stressed that currently, no data regarding a risk of TSE infections from cervid products are available.

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 23, 2019

    Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion and THE FEAST 2003 CDC an updated review of the science 2019

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 04, 2014

    Six-year follow-up of a point-source exposure to CWD contaminated venison in an Upstate New York community: risk behaviours and health outcomes 2005–2011

    Authors, though, acknowledged the study was limited in geography and sample size and so it couldn't draw a conclusion about the risk to humans. They recommended more study. Dr. Ermias Belay was the report's principal author but he said New York and Oneida County officials are following the proper course by not launching a study. "There's really nothing to monitor presently. No one's sick," Belay said, noting the disease's incubation period in deer and elk is measured in years. "

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    Transmission Studies

    Mule deer transmissions of CWD were by intracerebral inoculation and compared with natural cases {the following was written but with a single line marked through it ''first passage (by this route)}....TSS

    resulted in a more rapidly progressive clinical disease with repeated episodes of synocopy ending in coma. One control animal became affected, it is believed through contamination of inoculum (?saline). Further CWD transmissions were carried out by Dick Marsh into ferret, mink and squirrel monkey. Transmission occurred in ALL of these species with the shortest incubation period in the ferret.

    snip....

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    Prion Infectivity in Fat of Deer with Chronic Wasting Disease▿

    Brent Race#, Kimberly Meade-White#, Richard Race and Bruce Chesebro* + Author Affiliations

    In mice, prion infectivity was recently detected in fat. Since ruminant fat is consumed by humans and fed to animals, we determined infectivity titers in fat from two CWD-infected deer. Deer fat devoid of muscle contained low levels of CWD infectivity and might be a risk factor for prion infection of other species.

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    Prions in Skeletal Muscles of Deer with Chronic Wasting Disease

    Here bioassays in transgenic mice expressing cervid prion protein revealed the presence of infectious prions in skeletal muscles of CWD-infected deer, demonstrating that humans consuming or handling meat from CWD-infected deer are at risk to prion exposure.

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    *** now, let’s see what the authors said about this casual link, personal communications years ago, and then the latest on the zoonotic potential from CWD to humans from the TOKYO PRION 2016 CONFERENCE.

    see where it is stated NO STRONG evidence. so, does this mean there IS casual evidence ???? “Our conclusion stating that we found no strong evidence of CWD transmission to humans”

    From: TSS

    Subject: CWD aka MAD DEER/ELK TO HUMANS ???

    Date: September 30, 2002 at 7:06 am PST

    From: "Belay, Ermias"

    To: Cc: "Race, Richard (NIH)" ; ; "Belay, Ermias"

    Sent: Monday, September 30, 2002 9:22 AM

    Subject: RE: TO CDC AND NIH - PUB MED- 3 MORE DEATHS - CWD - YOUNG HUNTERS

    Dear Sir/Madam,

    In the Archives of Neurology you quoted (the abstract of which was attached to your email), we did not say CWD in humans will present like variant CJD.. That assumption would be wrong. I encourage you to read the whole article and call me if you have questions or need more clarification (phone: 404-639-3091). Also, we do not claim that "no-one has ever been infected with prion disease from eating venison." Our conclusion stating that we found no strong evidence of CWD transmission to humans in the article you quoted or in any other forum is limited to the patients we investigated.

    Ermias Belay, M.D. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    -----Original Message-----

    From: Sent: Sunday, September 29, 2002 10:15 AM

    To: rr26k@nih.gov; rrace@niaid.nih.gov; ebb8@CDC.GOV

    Subject: TO CDC AND NIH - PUB MED- 3 MORE DEATHS - CWD - YOUNG HUNTERS

    Sunday, November 10, 2002 6:26 PM .......snip........end..............TSS

    Thursday, April 03, 2008

    A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease 2008 1: Vet Res. 2008 Apr 3;39(4):41 A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease Sigurdson CJ.

    snip...

    *** twenty-seven CJD patients who regularly consumed venison were reported to the Surveillance Center***,

    snip... full text ;

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    > However, to date, no CWD infections have been reported in people.

    sporadic, spontaneous CJD, 85%+ of all human TSE, did not just happen. never in scientific literature has this been proven.

    if one looks up the word sporadic or spontaneous at pubmed, you will get a laundry list of disease that are classified in such a way;

    sporadic = 54,983 hits Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    spontaneous = 325,650 hits Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    key word here is 'reported'. science has shown that CWD in humans will look like sporadic CJD. SO, how can one assume that CWD has not already transmitted to humans? they can't, and it's as simple as that. from all recorded science to date, CWD has already transmitted to humans, and it's being misdiagnosed as sporadic CJD. ...terry

    *** LOOKING FOR CWD IN HUMANS AS nvCJD or as an ATYPICAL CJD, LOOKING IN ALL THE WRONG PLACES $$$ ***


    > However, to date, no CWD infections have been reported in people.

    key word here is ‘reported’. science has shown that CWD in humans will look like sporadic CJD. SO, how can one assume that CWD has not already transmitted to humans? they can’t, and it’s as simple as that. from all recorded science to date, CWD has already transmitted to humans, and it’s being misdiagnosed as sporadic CJD. …terry

    *** LOOKING FOR CWD IN HUMANS AS nvCJD or as an ATYPICAL CJD, LOOKING IN ALL THE WRONG PLACES $$$ ***

    *** These results would seem to suggest that CWD does indeed have zoonotic potential, at least as judged by the compatibility of CWD prions and their human PrPC target. Furthermore, extrapolation from this simple in vitro assay suggests that if zoonotic CWD occurred, it would most likely effect those of the PRNP codon 129-MM genotype and that the PrPres type would be similar to that found in the most common subtype of sCJD (MM1).***

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    CWD TSE PRION AND ZOONOTIC, ZOONOSIS, POTENTIAL

    Subject: Re: DEER SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY SURVEY & HOUND STUDY

    Date: Fri, 18 Oct 2002 23:12:22 +0100

    From: Steve Dealler

    Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Organization: Netscape Online member

    To: BSE-L@ References:

    Dear Terry,

    An excellent piece of review as this literature is desperately difficult to get back from Government sites.

    What happened with the deer was that an association between deer meat eating and sporadic CJD was found in about 1993. The evidence was not great but did not disappear after several years of asking CJD cases what they had eaten. I think that the work into deer disease largely stopped because it was not helpful to the UK industry...and no specific cases were reported. Well, if you dont look adequately like they are in USA currenly then you wont find any!

    Steve Dealler ===============

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    ''The association between venison eating and risk of CJD shows similar pattern, with regular venison eating associated with a 9 FOLD INCREASE IN RISK OF CJD (p = 0.04).''

    CREUTZFELDT JAKOB DISEASE SURVEILLANCE IN THE UNITED KINGDOM THIRD ANNUAL REPORT AUGUST 1994

    Consumption of venison and veal was much less widespread among both cases and controls. For both of these meats there was evidence of a trend with increasing frequency of consumption being associated with increasing risk of CJD. (not nvCJD, but sporadic CJD...tss) These associations were largely unchanged when attention was restricted to pairs with data obtained from relatives. ...

    Table 9 presents the results of an analysis of these data.

    There is STRONG evidence of an association between ‘’regular’’ veal eating and risk of CJD (p = .0.01).

    Individuals reported to eat veal on average at least once a year appear to be at 13 TIMES THE RISK of individuals who have never eaten veal.

    There is, however, a very wide confidence interval around this estimate. There is no strong evidence that eating veal less than once per year is associated with increased risk of CJD (p = 0.51).

    The association between venison eating and risk of CJD shows similar pattern, with regular venison eating associated with a 9 FOLD INCREASE IN RISK OF CJD (p = 0.04).

    There is some evidence that risk of CJD INCREASES WITH INCREASING FREQUENCY OF LAMB EATING (p = 0.02).

    The evidence for such an association between beef eating and CJD is weaker (p = 0.14). When only controls for whom a relative was interviewed are included, this evidence becomes a little STRONGER (p = 0.08).

    snip...

    It was found that when veal was included in the model with another exposure, the association between veal and CJD remained statistically significant (p = < 0.05 for all exposures), while the other exposures ceased to be statistically significant (p = > 0.05).

    snip...

    In conclusion, an analysis of dietary histories revealed statistical associations between various meats/animal products and INCREASED RISK OF CJD. When some account was taken of possible confounding, the association between VEAL EATING AND RISK OF CJD EMERGED AS THE STRONGEST OF THESE ASSOCIATIONS STATISTICALLY. ...

    snip...

    In the study in the USA, a range of foodstuffs were associated with an increased risk of CJD, including liver consumption which was associated with an apparent SIX-FOLD INCREASE IN THE RISK OF CJD. By comparing the data from 3 studies in relation to this particular dietary factor, the risk of liver consumption became non-significant with an odds ratio of 1.2 (PERSONAL COMMUNICATION, PROFESSOR A. HOFMAN. ERASMUS UNIVERSITY, ROTTERDAM). (???...TSS)

    snip...see full report ;

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    Stephen Dealler is a consultant medical microbiologist deal@airtime.co.uk

    BSE Inquiry Steve Dealler

    Management In Confidence

    BSE: Private Submission of Bovine Brain Dealler

    snip...see full text;


    MONDAY, FEBRUARY 25, 2019

    ***> MAD DOGS AND ENGLISHMEN BSE, SCRAPIE, CWD, CJD, TSE PRION A REVIEW 2019

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    ***> ''The association between venison eating and risk of CJD shows similar pattern, with regular venison eating associated with a 9 FOLD INCREASE IN RISK OF CJD (p = 0.04).''

    ***> In conclusion, sensory symptoms and loss of reflexes in Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome can be explained by neuropathological changes in the spinal cord. We conclude that the sensory symptoms and loss of lower limb reflexes in Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome is due to pathology in the caudal spinal cord. <***

    ***> The clinical and pathological presentation in macaques was mostly atypical, with a strong emphasis on spinal cord pathology.<***

    ***> The notion that CWD can be transmitted orally into both new-world and old-world non-human primates asks for a careful reevaluation of the zoonotic risk of CWD. <***

    ***> All animals have variable signs of prion neuropathology in spinal cords and brains and by supersensitive IHC, reaction was detected in spinal cord segments of all animals.<***

    ***> In particular the US data do not clearly exclude the possibility of human (sporadic or familial) TSE development due to consumption of venison. The Working Group thus recognizes a potential risk to consumers if a TSE would be present in European cervids.'' Scientific opinion on chronic wasting disease (II) <***

    Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

    WHAT IF? ...iatrogenic???

    terry

    Comment


      #3
      WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, 2022


      PRION CONFERENCE 2022 ABSTRACTS CWD TSE PrP ZOONOSIS

      Only registered and activated users can see links., Click Here To Register...

      Comment

      Working...
      X