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Thread: Clinical findings of a probable case of MM2-cortical-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob

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    Default Clinical findings of a probable case of MM2-cortical-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob

    Case Report

    Clinical findings of a probable case of MM2-cortical-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with antibodies to anti-N-terminus of α-enolase

    Yuichi Hayashi ORCID Icon, Megumi Yamada, Akio Kimura, Takahiko Asano, Katsuya Satoh, Tetsuyuki Kitamoto, show all Pages 1-11 | Received 02 Aug 2017, Accepted 05 Sep 2017, Accepted author version posted online: 02 Oct 2017, Published online: 02 Oct 2017 Download citation http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19336896.2017.1377876 Select Language​▼ Translator disclaimer

    ABSTRACT

    We report the case of a 76-year-old woman presenting with 47-month history of progressive dementia and cortical blindness with no family history. Antibodies against thyroid glands and the N-terminus of α-enolase (NAE) were detected in her serum. Neurological examination revealed progressive dementia, frontal signs, visual disturbance, and exaggerated bilateral tendon reflexes in both legs. Diffusion MRI showed cortical hyper-intensities in the bilateral occipital and parietal, and the left frontal and temporal cortices. 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer-single photon emission computed tomography indicated decreased regional cerebral blood flow throughout the bilateral parietal lobes and partially in the left frontal and temporal lobes. PRNP gene analysis showed no mutations with methionine homozygosity at codon 129 in peripheral blood. Cerebrospinal fluid examination, including 14-3-3 and total tau protein detection, revealed normal levels; however, prion proteins were amplified by the real-time quaking-induced conversion method. Hashimoto's encephalopathy was excluded on the basis of unresponsiveness to corticosteroids. The symptoms progressed slowly. Periodic sharp-wave complexes were observed on electroencephalogram 36 months after the onset of symptoms; the patient reached a state of akinetic mutism at 47 months. This was a probable case of MM2-cortical-type sCJD with anti-NAE antibodies based on the World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria for sCJD, genetic information, and the slowly progressive course. However, this case did not meet with the probable WHO diagnostic criteria until 3 years after symptom onset, highlighting the difficulty of diagnosing a living case of the MM2-type of sCJD. Therefore, establishment of clinical diagnostic criteria for MM2-type of sCJD is required.

    KEYWORDS: anti-N-terminus of α-enolase antibody, corticosteroid, Hashimoto encephalopathy, MM2-cortical-type, MRI, real-time quaking-induced conversion assay, sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/...6.2017.1377876

    MONDAY, OCTOBER 02, 2017

    Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease United States of America USA and United Kingdom UK Increasing and Zoonotic Pontential From Different Species

    http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blo...ed-states.html

    THURSDAY, AUGUST 17, 2017

    *** Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States revisited 2017

    Singeltary et al

    http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blo...ing-forms.html

    FRIDAY, AUGUST 11, 2017

    Infectivity in bone marrow from sporadic CJD patients

    Bioassays in transgenic mice expressing the human prion protein revealed the presence of unexpectedly high levels of infectivity in the bone marrow from seven out of eight sCJD cases. These findings may explain the presence of blood-borne infectivity in sCJD patients. They also suggest that the distribution of prion infectivity in peripheral tissues in sCJD patients could be wider than currently believed, with potential implications for the iatrogenic transmission risk of this disease.

    http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blo...rrow-from.html

    THURSDAY, AUGUST 10, 2017

    Minimise transmission risk of CJD and vCJD in healthcare settings Updated 10 August 2017

    http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blo...f-cjd-and.html

    National Prion Center could lose all funding just as concern about CWD jumping to humans rises

    SATURDAY, JULY 15, 2017

    *** National Prion Center could lose all funding just as concern about CWD jumping to humans rises

    http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blo...-lose-all.html

    SATURDAY, JULY 29, 2017

    Risk Advisory Opinion: Potential Human Health Risks from Chronic Wasting Disease CFIA, PHAC, HC (HPFB and FNIHB), INAC, Parks Canada, ECCC and AAFC

    http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogs...ial-human.html

    Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period

    Emmanuel E. Comoy, Jacqueline Mikol, Sophie Luccantoni-Freire, Evelyne Correia, Nathalie Lescoutra-Etchegaray, Valérie Durand, Capucine Dehen, Olivier Andreoletti, Cristina Casalone, Juergen A. Richt, Justin J. Greenlee, Thierry Baron, Sylvie L. Benestad, Paul Brown & Jean-Philippe Deslys Scientific Reports 5, Article number: 11573 (2015)

    doi:10.1038/srep11573

    Download Citation

    EpidemiologyNeurological manifestationsPrion diseases

    Received: 16 February 2015

    Accepted: 28 May 2015

    Published online: 30 June 2015

    Abstract

    Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (c-BSE) is the only animal prion disease reputed to be zoonotic, causing variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans and having guided protective measures for animal and human health against animal prion diseases. Recently, partial transmissions to humanized mice showed that the zoonotic potential of scrapie might be similar to c-BSE. We here report the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to cynomolgus macaque, a highly relevant model for human prion diseases, after a 10-year silent incubation period, with features similar to those reported for human cases of sporadic CJD. Scrapie is thus actually transmissible to primates with incubation periods compatible with their life expectancy, although fourfold longer than BSE. Long-term experimental transmission studies are necessary to better assess the zoonotic potential of other prion diseases with high prevalence, notably Chronic Wasting Disease of deer and elk and atypical/Nor98 scrapie.

    snip...

    In addition to previous studies on scrapie transmission to primate1,8,9 and the recently published study on transgenic humanized mice13, our results constitute new evidence for recommending that the potential risk of scrapie for human health should not be dismissed. Indeed, human PrP transgenic mice and primates are the most relevant models for investigating the human transmission barrier. To what extent such models are informative for measuring the zoonotic potential of an animal TSE under field exposure conditions is unknown. During the past decades, many protective measures have been successfully implemented to protect cattle from the spread of c-BSE, and some of these measures have been extended to sheep and goats to protect from scrapie according to the principle of precaution. Since cases of c-BSE have greatly reduced in number, those protective measures are currently being challenged and relaxed in the absence of other known zoonotic animal prion disease. We recommend that risk managers should be aware of the long term potential risk to human health of at least certain scrapie isolates, notably for lymphotropic strains like the classical scrapie strain used in the current study. Relatively high amounts of infectivity in peripheral lymphoid organs in animals infected with these strains could lead to contamination of food products produced for human consumption. Efforts should also be maintained to further assess the zoonotic potential of other animal prion strains in long-term studies, notably lymphotropic strains with high prevalence like CWD, which is spreading across North America, and atypical/Nor98 scrapie (Nor98)50 that was first detected in the past two decades and now represents approximately half of all reported cases of prion diseases in small ruminants worldwide, including territories previously considered as scrapie free. Even if the prevailing view is that sporadic CJD is due to the spontaneous formation of CJD prions, it remains possible that its apparent sporadic nature may, at least in part, result from our limited capacity to identify an environmental origin.

    SPONTANEOUS ATYPICAL BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY

    ***Moreover, sporadic disease has never been observed in breeding colonies or primate research laboratories, most notably among hundreds of animals over several decades of study at the National Institutes of Health25, and in nearly twenty older animals continuously housed in our own facility.***

    http://www.nature.com/articles/srep11573

    O.05: Transmission of prions to primates after extended silent incubation periods: Implications for BSE and scrapie risk assessment in human populations Emmanuel Comoy, Jacqueline Mikol, Valerie Durand, Sophie Luccantoni, Evelyne Correia, Nathalie Lescoutra, Capucine Dehen, and Jean-Philippe Deslys Atomic Energy Commission; Fontenay-aux-Roses, France Prion diseases (PD) are the unique neurodegenerative proteinopathies reputed to be transmissible under field conditions since decades. The transmission of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) to humans evidenced that an animal PD might be zoonotic under appropriate conditions. Contrarily, in the absence of obvious (epidemiological or experimental) elements supporting a transmission or genetic predispositions, PD, like the other proteinopathies, are reputed to occur spontaneously (atpical animal prion strains, sporadic CJD summing 80% of human prion cases). Non-human primate models provided the first evidences supporting the transmissibiity of human prion strains and the zoonotic potential of BSE. Among them, cynomolgus macaques brought major information for BSE risk assessment for human health (Chen, 2014), according to their phylogenetic proximity to humans and extended lifetime. We used this model to assess the zoonotic potential of other animal PD from bovine, ovine and cervid origins even after very long silent incubation periods.

    *** We recently observed the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to macaque after a 10-year silent incubation period,

    ***with features similar to some reported for human cases of sporadic CJD, albeit requiring fourfold long incubation than BSE. Scrapie, as recently evoked in humanized mice (Cassard, 2014),

    ***is the third potentially zoonotic PD (with BSE and L-type BSE),

    ***thus questioning the origin of human sporadic cases.

    We will present an updated panorama of our different transmission studies and discuss the implications of such extended incubation periods on risk assessment of animal PD for human health.

    ===============

    ***thus questioning the origin of human sporadic cases***

    ===============

    ***our findings suggest that possible transmission risk of H-type BSE to sheep and human. Bioassay will be required to determine whether the PMCA products are infectious to these animals.

    ==============

    https://prion2015.files.wordpress.co...5abstracts.pdf

    Transmission data also revealed that several scrapie prions propagate in HuPrP-Tg mice with efficiency comparable to that of cattle BSE. While the efficiency of transmission at primary passage was low, subsequent passages resulted in a highly virulent prion disease in both Met129 and Val129 mice. Transmission of the different scrapie isolates in these mice leads to the emergence of prion strain phenotypes that showed similar characteristics to those displayed by MM1 or VV2 sCJD prion. These results demonstrate that scrapie prions have a zoonotic potential and raise new questions about the possible link between animal and human prions.

    http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/1...nalCode=kprn20

    Saturday, April 23, 2016

    Scrapie ZOONOSIS PRION CONFERENCE TOKYO 2016

    *** SCRAPIE WS-01: Prion diseases in animals and zoonotic potential 2016

    *** Prion. 10:S15-S21. 2016 ISSN: 1933-6896 printl 1933-690X

    http://scrapie-usa.blogspot.com/2016...n-animals.html

    http://scrapie-usa.blogspot.com/

    SCRAPIE WS-01: Prion diseases in animals and zoonotic potential 2016 Prion. 10:S15-S21. 2016 ISSN: 1933-6896 printl 1933-690X online

    Taylor & Francis

    Prion 2016 Animal Prion Disease Workshop Abstracts

    WS-01: Prion diseases in animals and zoonotic potential

    Juan Maria Torres a, Olivier Andreoletti b, J uan-Carlos Espinosa a. Vincent Beringue c. Patricia Aguilar a,

    Natalia Fernandez-Borges a. and Alba Marin-Moreno a

    "Centro de Investigacion en Sanidad Animal ( CISA-INIA ). Valdeolmos, Madrid. Spain; b UMR INRA -ENVT 1225 Interactions Holes Agents Pathogenes. ENVT. Toulouse. France: "UR892. Virologie lmmunologie MolécuIaires, Jouy-en-Josas. France

    Dietary exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) contaminated bovine tissues is considered as the origin of variant Creutzfeldt Jakob (vCJD) disease in human. To date, BSE agent is the only recognized zoonotic prion. Despite the variety of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) agents that have been circulating for centuries in farmed ruminants there is no apparent epidemiological link between exposure to ruminant products and the occurrence of other form of TSE in human like sporadic Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (sCJD). However, the zoonotic potential of the diversity of circulating TSE agents has never been systematically assessed. The major issue in experimental assessment of TSEs zoonotic potential lies in the modeling of the ‘species barrier‘, the biological phenomenon that limits TSE agents’ propagation from a species to another. In the last decade, mice genetically engineered to express normal forms of the human prion protein has proved essential in studying human prions pathogenesis and modeling the capacity of TSEs to cross the human species barrier.

    To assess the zoonotic potential of prions circulating in farmed ruminants, we study their transmission ability in transgenic mice expressing human PrPC (HuPrP-Tg). Two lines of mice expressing different forms of the human PrPC (129Met or 129Val) are used to determine the role of the Met129Val dimorphism in susceptibility/resistance to the different agents.

    These transmission experiments confirm the ability of BSE prions to propagate in 129M- HuPrP-Tg mice and demonstrate that Met129 homozygotes may be susceptible to BSE in sheep or goat to a greater degree than the BSE agent in cattle and that these agents can convey molecular properties and neuropathological indistinguishable from vCJD. However homozygous 129V mice are resistant to all tested BSE derived prions independently of the originating species suggesting a higher transmission barrier for 129V-PrP variant.

    Transmission data also revealed that several scrapie prions propagate in HuPrP-Tg mice with efficiency comparable to that of cattle BSE. While the efficiency of transmission at primary passage was low, subsequent passages resulted in a highly virulent prion disease in both Met129 and Val129 mice. Transmission of the different scrapie isolates in these mice leads to the emergence of prion strain phenotypes that showed similar characteristics to those displayed by MM1 or VV2 sCJD prion. These results demonstrate that scrapie prions have a zoonotic potential and raise new questions about the possible link between animal and human prions.

    http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/1...nalCode=kprn20

    *** Transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease to a chimpanzee by electrodes contaminated during neurosurgery ***

    Gibbs CJ Jr, Asher DM, Kobrine A, Amyx HL, Sulima MP, Gajdusek DC. Laboratory of Central Nervous System Studies, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892.

    Stereotactic multicontact electrodes used to probe the cerebral cortex of a middle aged woman with progressive dementia were previously implicated in the accidental transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) to two younger patients. The diagnoses of CJD have been confirmed for all three cases. More than two years after their last use in humans, after three cleanings and repeated sterilisation in ethanol and formaldehyde vapour, the electrodes were implanted in the cortex of a chimpanzee. Eighteen months later the animal became ill with CJD. This finding serves to re-emphasise the potential danger posed by reuse of instruments contaminated with the agents of spongiform encephalopathies, even after scrupulous attempts to clean them.

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/q...&dopt=Abstract


    http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/


    Terry S. Singeltary Sr.


    TUESDAY, OCTOBER 31, 2017

    Clinical findings of a probable case of MM2-cortical-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with antibodies to anti-N-terminus of α-enolase

    http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blo...e-case-of.html

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    Distinguished Community Member Sherman Peabody's Avatar
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    ^^
    Forgive me but I am totally unfamiliar with CJD and just trying to grasp the significance of your post. I gather the data is very recent. Can you maybe explain it a little in lay terms? If you don't mind my asking, are you or someone you know suffering from the illness, and if so, would you mind maybe telling us a little about that?

    Best wishes now and always.
    Last edited by Sherman Peabody; 11-01-2017 at 12:06 AM.

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    hi Sherman, i have been posting here since about 2006 about creutzfeldt jakob disease cjd transmissible spongiform encephalopathy tse prion disease since my mom died from the heidenhain variant creutzfeldt jakob disease hvcjd confirmed back in 1997 aka mad cow disease, and had the officials back then tell us it just happens spontaneously without no route and no source, just happens, a happenstance of bad luck. i refused to believe them back then, and since then, have been vindicated by science, that indeed the UK nvCJD only theory was bogus all along, that c-BSE is not the only zoonotic tse prion disease in animals, something i have tried to tell them daily for almost 20 years. now we know that indeed sporadic cjd is linked to atypical and typical BSE, Scrapie, and CWD, and the medical, dental, surgical arenas should stay keenly aware of what is going on, with the tse prion and Alzheimer's disease...

    in short, i made a promise to mom, never forget, and never let them forget. ...

    kindest regards, terry

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