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  #21  
Old 10-26-2008, 02:13 AM
southie southie is offline
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Post Historical Information on Anti-Convulsants / Anti-Epileptic Drugs

Anticonvulsant Historical Information - from Wiki

Drugs

In the following list, the dates in parentheses are the earliest approved use of the drug.

Aldehydes

Main article: Aldehydes

* Paraldehyde (1882). One of the earliest anticonvulsants. Still used to treat status epilepticus, particularly where there are no resuscitation facilities.

Aromatic allylic alcohols

* Stiripentol (2001 - limited availability). Indicated for the treatment of severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy (SMEI).

Barbiturates

Main article: Barbiturates

Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system (CNS) depressants, and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to anesthesia. The following are classified as anticonvulsants:

* Phenobarbital (1912). See also the related drug primidone.
* Methylphenobarbital (1935). Known as mephobarbital in the US. No longer marketed in the UK
* Metharbital (1952). No longer marketed in the UK or US.
* Barbexaclone (1982). Only available in some European countries.

Phenobarbital was the main anticonvulsant from 1912 till the development of phenytoin in 1938. Today, phenobarbital is rarely used to treat epilepsy in new patients since there are other effective drugs that are less sedating. Phenobarbital sodium injection can be used to stop acute convulsions or status epilepticus, but a benzodiazepine such as lorazepam, diazepam or midazolam is usually tried first. Other barbiturates only have an anticonvulsant effect at anaesthetic doses.

Benzodiazepines

Main article: Benzodiazepines

The benzodiazepines are a class of drugs with hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsive, amnestic and muscle relaxant properties. The relative strength of each of these properties in any given benzodiazepine varies greatly and influences the indications for which it is prescribed. Long-term use can be problematic due to the development of tolerance and dependency. Of the many drugs in this class, only a few are used to treat epilepsy:

* Clobazam (1979). Notably used on a short-term basis around menstruation in women with catamenial epilepsy.
* Clonazepam (1974).
* Clorazepate (1972).

The following benzodiazepines are used to treat status epilepticus:

* Diazepam (1963). Can be given rectally by trained care-givers.
* Midazolam (N/A). Increasingly being used as an alternative to diazepam. This water-soluble drug is squirted into the side of the mouth but not swallowed. It is rapidly absorbed by the buccal mucosa.
* Lorazepam (1972). Given by injection in hospital.

Bromides

Main article: Bromides

* Potassium bromide (1857). The earliest effective treatment for epilepsy. There would not be a better drug for epilepsy until phenobarbital in 1912. It is still used as an anticonvulsant for dogs and cats.


Carbamates


Main article: Carbamates

* Felbamate (1993). This effective anticonvulsant has had its usage severely restricted due to rare but life-threatening side effects.


Carboxamides


Main article: Carboxamides

The following are carboxamides:

* Carbamazepine (1963). A popular anticonvulsant that is available in generic formulations.
* Oxcarbazepine (1990). A derivative of carbamazepine that has similar efficacy but is better tolerated.

Fatty acids

Main article: Fatty acids

The following are fatty-acids:

* The valproates — valproic acid, sodium valproate, and divalproex sodium (1967).
* Vigabatrin (1989).
* Progabide
* Tiagabine (1996).

Vigabatrin and progabide are also analogs of GABA.

Fructose derivatives

Main article: Fructose

* Topiramate (1995).

Gaba analogs

* Gabapentin (1993).
* Pregabalin (2004).

Hydantoins

Main article: Hydantoins

The following are hydantoins:

* Ethotoin (1957).
* Phenytoin (1938 ).
* Mephenytoin
* Fosphenytoin (1996).

Oxazolidinediones


Main article: Oxazolidinediones

The following are oxazolidinediones:

* Paramethadione
* Trimethadione (1946).
* Ethadione

Propionates


Main article: Propionates

* Beclamide

Pyrimidinediones

Main article: Pyrimidinediones

* Primidone (1952).

Pyrrolidines

Main article: Pyrrolidines

* Brivaracetam
* Levetiracetam (1999).
* Seletracetam

Succinimides

Main article: Succinimides

The following are succinimides:

* Ethosuximide (1955).
* Phensuximide
* Mesuximide

Sulfonamides

Main article: Sulfonamides

* Acetazolamide (1953).
* Sulthiame
* Methazolamide
* Zonisamide (2000).

Triazines

Main article: Triazines

* Lamotrigine (1990).

Ureas

Main article: Ureas

* Pheneturide
* Phenacemide

Valproylamides (amide derivatives of valproate)

Main article: Amides

* Valpromide
* Valnoctamide

Diet

The ketogenic diet is a strict medically supervised diet that has an anticonvulsant effect. It is typically used in children with refractory epilepsy.

Devices

The vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) is a device that sends electric impulses to the left vagus nerve in the neck via a lead implanted under the skin. It was FDA approved in 1997 as an adjunctive therapy for partial-onset epilepsy.

Marketing approval history

The following table lists anticonvulsant drugs together with the date their marketing was approved in the US, UK and France. Data for the UK and France is incomplete. In recent years, the European Medicines Agency has approved drugs throughout the European Union.

Some of the drugs are no longer marketed.


Generic.....................Brand
acetazolamide............Diamox
carbamazepine...........Tegretol
clobazam...................Frisium
clonazepam................Klonopin/Rivotril
diazepam...................Valium
divalproex sodium........Depakote
ethosuximide..............Zarontin
ethotoin....................Peganone
felbamate..................Felbatol
fosphenytoin..............Cerebyx
gabapentin.................Neurontin
lamotrigine..................Lamictal
levetiracetam..............Keppra
mephenytoin...............Mesantoin
metharbital.................Gemonil
methsuximide..............Celontin
methazolamide............Neptazane
oxcarbazepine.............Trileptal
phenobarbital
phenytoin...................Dilantin/Epanutin
phensuximide..............Milontin
pregabalin..................Lyrica
primidone...................Mysoline
sodium valproate.........Epilim
stiripentol..................Diacomit
tiagabine...................Gabitril
topiramate.................Topamax
trimethadione.............Tridione
valproic acid...............Depakene/Convulex
vigabatrin...................Sabril
zonisamide.................Zonegran
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  #22  
Old 12-11-2008, 01:05 AM
llaselle1 llaselle1 is offline
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Default This page has articles on Epilepsy

http://www.EpilepticSeizureDisorder.com

Last edited by llaselle1; 12-11-2008 at 01:09 AM. Reason: Give title
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  #23  
Old 01-29-2009, 12:56 PM
Toad Toad is offline
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Default

For those changing jobs and concerned about insurance rights:

1.) (Federal) The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA)

2.) (State) Web site of the National Association of Insurance Commissioners
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“The memory of no memory; what a way to forget..” toadism
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  #24  
Old 04-20-2009, 04:42 PM
moose53 moose53 is offline
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Arrow A Must-Read Article in Newsweek: Seized by the anti-storm

http://www.mindhacks.com/blog/2009/0...the_antis.html
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  #25  
Old 08-21-2010, 10:41 AM
andy1618 andy1618 is offline
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Default Vitamin B6 Dependent Epilepsy

I had my first seizure at two weeks old. I spent the first six months of my life in and out of hospital. Doctors were mystified by my illness. None of the ‘normal’ antiepileptic drugs that were administered had any positive effects. At this time I was having many ‘different types’ of seizures a day some of which went status. Countless tests were being done including, EEGs, lumber punctures… etc. A top pediatrician from the main city hospital told my mother that he was going to a meeting. He said he would talk about me in the hope that someone there would be able to help us. At this meeting there was a professor who was doing research into childhood epilepsy. He suggested a trial of Pyridoxine Hydrochloride (vitamin B6). Pyridoxine Hydrochloride was administered (I was five months old). Within two to three days my mother noticed a big difference in me. I’d stopped having severe seizures. Because of the positive effects that Pyridoxine had on my seizures doctors slowly weaned me off all the antiepileptic drugs (this was back in 1970-71). I’ve been taking Pyridoxine Hydrochloride on a daily bases ever since.

I was still expeiencing my aura so when I was 19 years old, With my doctor's consent, I added a multi B complex tablet to my daily medication. This stoped my aura.

http://braintalkcommunities.org/foru...ad.php?t=36549

**DO NOT ALTER ANY MEDICATION WITHOUT YOUR DOCTOR'S CONSENT**

Regards,

Andy
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  #26  
Old 01-21-2011, 01:26 PM
Bill[uk] Bill[uk] is offline
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Default living with epilepsy

check out the link

http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical...sy_index.shtml - living with epilepsy

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Colloid cyst removed from 3rd ventricle endoscopically oct 07 shunt inserted late oct 07.
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  #27  
Old 02-24-2011, 02:36 PM
Bill[uk] Bill[uk] is offline
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Default epilepsy

check out the link

http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode...otes_Epilepsy/
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Colloid cyst removed from 3rd ventricle endoscopically oct 07 shunt inserted late oct 07.
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  #28  
Old 03-14-2011, 02:37 PM
Bill[uk] Bill[uk] is offline
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Default epilepsy

check out the link

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epilepsy

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Colloid cyst removed from 3rd ventricle endoscopically oct 07 shunt inserted late oct 07.
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  #29  
Old 05-07-2011, 04:50 AM
Bill[uk] Bill[uk] is offline
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Default useful link

check out the link

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00yqspm#synopsis

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Colloid cyst removed from 3rd ventricle endoscopically oct 07 shunt inserted late oct 07.
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